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Grading and guard bed catalysts are used to protect the main bed catalysts from fouling and poisoning.
hydroprocessing units suffer to some degree from fouling of the
catalyst bed. In the worst cases, fouling limits the unit’s cycle length
rather than main bed catalyst activity, potentially reducing the return
on investment in main bed catalyst. A well designed system of grading
and guard bed catalysts can prevent problems with pressure drop and
fouling, significantly increasing cycle length. Albemarle offers a
complete line of catalysts to address all aspects of pressure drop and
KG 16 MAC
KG 16 MAC is a guard bed catalyst used for maximum removal of arsenic. It is applied near the top of a hydrotreating catalyst bed to provide protection for main bed catalyst from the detrimental effects of As on catalyst activity. In addition to As removal KG 16 MAC is also effective for removal of Si, V and Ni. It has moderate hydrogenation activity, making it appropriate for application with reactive feedstocks such as diolefins and asphaltenes.
KG 4 is a new inert guard catalyst designed for maximum silicon (Si) trapping capacity to protect main bed catalysts.
KG 5 is a guard catalyst with open pores and high contaminants uptake capacity. It shows high Ni and V capacities in heavy petroleum hydrotreating applications and is applied at the top of the reactor to protect the downstream active catalysts. In addition, KG5 also shows excellent P uptake capacities in vegetable oil co-processing services.
KG 8 is a guard bed catalyst used for removal of arsenic. It is applied near the top of a hydrotreating catalyst bed to provide protection for main bed catalyst from the detrimental effects of As on catalyst activity.
KG 9 is a specialty guard bed catalyst developed for removal of scale and organic iron. It improves pressure drop stability when processing feeds containing iron. The ring shape provides high external void fraction for trapping scale while the inner pore structure has high capacity for capturing iron.
KF 542 is an active support material supplied in both lobed and ring shapes for bed grading applications to control fouling and pressure drop build-up. It has low activity to favor slow removal of the most reactive feed components.
KF 647 is a catalyst especially designed for high capacity and activity for contaminant removal. It is usually applied at the top of a reactor to protect the bulk catalyst against poisoning by Ni, V, Na, Si and As. In addition to the excellent performance in contaminant removal it also provides good denitrogenation and desulfurization activity.
KF 648 is a NiMo catalyst for removal of Ni and V in heavy feeds, such as HVGO, ATB, VTB, DAO and DMO blends. It combines high metals pick-up capacity with moderate HDS and HDN activities. A typical application for KF 648 is in a guard bed or layer of a FCC-PT unit to protect downstream hydrotreating catalyst from deactivation by Ni and V.
KFR 22 is a hydrodemetalization catalyst for hydrotreating of heavy feedstocks in combination with other hydrotreating catalysts. It has a good desulfurization activity combined with a bimodal pore size distribution for high demetalization activity and asphaltene removal. The open pore structure results in a very high metals capacity
KG 55 is an inert pentaring support material for catalyst bed hold-down, bed grading and improved pressure drop stability. The high void fraction provides high holding capacity for scale and large particulates.